Questions and Answers
Jeep Cherokee Leak Detection Pump
Q. Hi! I recently had the engine light come on in my 2001 Jeep Cherokee. I took it to the dealer and for $400.00+ they "fixed" my Leak Detection Pump, which was said to be defective. Now two weeks later, the light came on again and I was told that some type of filter canister (that holds charcoal??) is the problem. Can you help me understand what this system does and what could be wrong?
- 2001 Jeep Cherokee
- 4.0 liter, 6 cylinder
- Manual transmission
- Fuel Injection
- ABS brakes
- P/S, A/C
A. First off, a model year 2001 with 43,000 miles is still covered under the 5 year/50,000 mile emissions warranty. That's federal law. So you should not have had to pay a penny for that repair since the Leak Detection Pump is an emission control device.
As is the Charcoal Canister. If that is bad there should be no charge for repair or replacement. I hope you saved the receipts because I think they owe you a bunch of money. If they give you an argument about it, call Chrysler and they will take care of it.
Now, are you ready to learn more about the Leak Detection Pump then you will ever need to know? Good! Here it is!
Leak Detection Pump (LDP) Operation And Diagnosis:
This article describes the theory of operation for the leak detection system. In addition, information is provided for each of the Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC's) as follows:
- P0442-Evap Leak Monitor 0.040" Leak Detected
- P0455-Evap Leak Monitor Large Leak Detected
- P0456-Evap Leak Monitor 0.020" Leak Detected
- P1486-Evap Leak Monitor Pinched Hose Found
- P1494-Leak Detection Pump SW Or Mechanical Fault
- P1495-Leak Detection Pump Solenoid Circuit
The evaporative emission system is designed to prevent the escape of fuel vapors from the fuel system. Leaks in the system, even small ones, can allow fuel vapors to escape into the atmosphere.
Government regulations (remember I said that?) require on-board testing to make sure that the evaporative (EVAP) system is functioning properly. The leak detection system tests for EVAP system leaks and blockage. It also performs self-diagnostics.
During self-diagnostics, the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) first checks the Leak Detection Pump (LDP) for electrical and mechanical faults. If the first checks pass, the PCM then uses the LDP to seal the vent valve and pump air into the system to pressurize it.
If a leak is present, the PCM will continue pumping the LDP to replace the air that leaks out. The PCM determines the size of the leak based on how fast/long it must pump the LDP as it tries to maintain pressure in the system.
EVAP Leak Detection System Components:
Service Port: Used with special tools like the Miller Evaporative Emissions Leak Detector (EELD) to test for leaks in the system.
EVAP Purge Solenoid: The PCM uses the EVAP purge solenoid to control purging of excess fuel vapors stored in the EVAP canister. It remains closed during leak testing to prevent loss of pressure.
EVAP Canister The EVAP canister stores fuel vapors from the fuel tank for purging. EVAP Purge Orifice: Limits purge volume.
EVAP System Air Filter: Provides air to the LDP for pressurizing the system. It filters out dirt while allowing a vent to atmosphere for the EVAP system.
Leak Detection Pump (LDP) Components:
The main purpose of the LDP is to pressurize the fuel system for leak checking. It closes the EVAP system vent to atmospheric pressure so the system can be pressurized for leak testing. The diaphragm is powered by engine vacuum. It pumps air into the EVAP system to develop a pressure of about 7.5' H20(1/4) psi. A reed switch in the LDP allows the PCM to monitor the position of the LDP diaphragm. The PCM uses the reed switch input to monitor how fast the LDP is pumping air into the EVAP system. This allows detection of leaks and blockage.
The LDP assembly consists of several parts. The solenoid is controlled by the PCM, and it connects the upper pump cavity to either engine vacuum or atmospheric pressure. A vent valve closes the EVAP system to atmosphere, sealing the system during leak testing. The pump section of the LDP consists of a diaphragm that moves up and down to bring air in through the air filter and inlet check valve, and pump it out through an outlet check valve into the EVAP system.
The diaphragm is pulled up by engine vacuum, and pushed down by spring pressure, as the LDP solenoid turns on and off. The LDP also has a magnetic reed switch to signal diaphragm position to the PCM. When the diaphragm is down, the switch is closed, which sends a 12 V (system voltage) signal to the PCM. When the diaphragm is up, the switch is open, and there is no voltage sent to the PCM. This allows the PCM to monitor LDP pumping action as it turns the LDP solenoid on and off.
LDP At Rest (Not Powered):
When the LDP is at rest (no electrical/vacuum) the diaphragm is allowed to drop down if the internal (EVAP system) pressure is not greater than the return spring. The LDP solenoid blocks the engine vacuum port and opens the atmospheric pressure port connected through the EVAP system air filter. The vent valve is held open by the diaphragm. This allows the canister to see atmospheric pressure.
Diaphragm Upward Movement:
When the PCM energizes the LDP solenoid, the solenoid blocks the atmospheric port leading through the EVAP air filter and at the same time opens the engine vacuum port to the pump cavity above the diaphragm. The diaphragm moves upward when vacuum above the diaphragm exceeds spring force. This upward movement closes the vent valve. It also causes low pressure below the diaphragm, unseating the inlet check valve and allowing air in from the EVAP air filter. When the diaphragm completes its upward movement, the LDP reed switch turns from closed to open.
Diaphragm Downward Movement:
based on reed switch input, the PCM de-energizes the LDP solenoid, causing it to block the vacuum port, and open the atmospheric port. This connects the upper pump cavity to atmosphere through the EVAP air filter. The spring is now able to push the diaphragm down. The downward movement of the diaphragm closes the inlet check valve and opens the outlet check valve pumping air into the evaporative system. The LDP reed switch turns from open to closed, allowing the PGM to monitor LDP pumping (diaphragm up/down) activity. During the pumping mode, the diaphragm will not move down far enough to open the vent valve.
The pumping cycle is repeated as the solenoid is turned on and off. When the evaporative system begins to pressurize, the pressure on the bottom of the diaphragm will begin to oppose the spring pressure, slowing the pumping action. The PCM watches the time from when the solenoid is de-energized, until the diaphragm drops down far enough for the reed switch to change from opened to closed. If the reed switch changes too quickly, a leak may be indicated. The longer it takes the reed switch to change state, the tighter the evaporative system is sealed. If the system pressurizes too quickly, a restriction somewhere in the EVAP system may be indicated.
During portions of this test, the PCM uses the reed switch to monitor diaphragm movement. The solenoid is only turned on by the PCM after the reed switch changes from open to closed, indicating that the diaphragm has moved down. At other times during the test, the PCM will rapidly cycle the LDP solenoid on and off to quickly pressurize the system. During rapid cycling, the diaphragm will not move enough to change the reed switch state. In the state of rapid cycling, the PCM will use a fixed time interval to cycle the solenoid.
The Charcoal Canister
The duty cycle EVAP canister purge solenoid (DCP) regulates the rate of vapor flow from the EVAP canister to the intake manifold. The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) operates the solenoid.
During the cold start warm-up period and the hot start time delay, the PCM does not energize the solenoid. When de-energized, no vapors are purged. The PCM de-energizes the solenoid during open loop operation.
The engine enters closed loop operation after it reaches a specified temperature and the time delay ends. During closed loop operation, the PCM cycles (energizes and de-energizes) the solenoid 5 or 10 times per second , depending upon operating conditions. The PCM varies the vapor flow rate by changing solenoid pulse width. Pulse width is the amount of time that the solenoid is energized. The PCM adjusts solenoid pulse width based on engine operating condition.
A maintenance free, EVAP canister is used on all vehicles. The EVAP canister is filled with granules of an activated carbon mixture. Fuel vapors entering the EVAP canister are absorbed by the charcoal granules.
Fuel tank pressure vents into the EVAP canister. Fuel vapors are temporarily held in the canister until they can be drawn into the intake manifold. The duty cycle EVAP canister purge solenoid allows the EVAP canister to be purged at predetermined times and at certain engine operating conditions.
Additional Information provided courtesy of AllDATA
Additional Information provided courtesy of AllDATA